In the animal husbandry business, cattle breeders have to face many difficulties. Dairy care is very important to survive in the global market competition. Let us see in detail some of the important diseases of animals and their treatment.
A) Infectious diseases: These diseases are mainly caused by viruses and bacteria. The body of healthy animals is entered by respiratory, fodder, water, rot, contact with sick animals and pathogens by humans. Regular vaccination should be done as a preventive measure to prevent infectious diseases in animals. These include anthrax, black feet, salivation, scabies, mastitis, and pneumonia.
1) Ashrex: It is the most common disease in cows and is also deadly. The disease does not keep the animal alive for long. The disease is caused by rectangular bacteria that produce large spores. The disease is more prevalent in ruminants. This bacterium needs oxygen to produce seeds. In animals, the symptoms appear 3 to 7 days after the bacterial seed enters the body. The animal dies within two days after the onset of symptoms. The disease is transmitted primarily when animals are left in open pastures to graze, when they enter the body through spores.
Benzyls Oshrex Symptoms
Sudden death of an animal. When the animal looks normal, the main symptom is death in 2 to 3 hours.
Some animals show mild symptoms, such as fever, nervousness, and trembling of the legs and body.
Symptoms of respiratory distress, shortness of breath, and falling to the ground appear 24 hours before death.
Blood does not clot when the animal dies. This allows blood to flow through open areas of the body such as the nose, ears, and mouth.
Treatment and control
Since the animal dies immediately after infection, it is not possible for you to cure it. Therefore, it is beneficial to take preventive measures to prevent the disease.
Antibiotics should be used in preventive measures. These include penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin and ciprofloxacin.
* Salivary-scabies disease: * Salivary-scabies disease is an infectious disease caused by temperature as well as discharge from the mouth, rot, hoof. The hooves of the animals that have come out of the disease properly appear to be rough and ruined. The disease is transmitted through direct contact or indirectly through water, dung, fodder etc. It is also spread through animal keepers, farm rats, animals, birds etc.
High fever (1o4 ° - 105 ° F).
Fibrous saliva is constantly coming through the mouth.
Transparent fibrous discharge appears in the mouth and inside.
Feeling tired and weak.
Hybrid cows are highly susceptible to this disease.
* Treatment *
Applying antiseptic on the outer part of the wound prevents the wound from healing and the fly from settling on it.
The simplest and cheapest solution is to clean the wound and apply a 5: 1 solution of coal tar and copper sulphate on it.
* Caution * a) High yielding dairy cows and heifers b) Twice preventive vaccination should be done at intervals of six months. Thereafter one vaccination is required every year.
Separate infected animals from the herd and call your nearest veterinarian immediately for treatment.
Animals by bleaching powder or disinfectant organic acid
The care of infected animals, the equipment used should be different. Care should be taken to ensure that they do not come into contact with healthy animals. Also, these equipments should be properly cleaned and disinfected.
Excess animal feed should be disposed of properly.
Dead animals should be disposed of properly. Control flies and insects.
3) Diseases: Cow, buffalo, goat, sheep, pig etc. Mainly found in animals. The virus is mainly found in saliva in the mouth, discharge from the eyes and nose, and animal feces and urine. In the early stages, the virus travels through the bloodstream. The virus is usually spread through contaminated food and water. Body temperature rises from 1o4 to 1o7 ° Fahrenheit. Symptoms include reddening of the eyes, persistent watery mouth, bad breath, and sticky bloody diarrhea. Treatment: Penicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, intestinal resistance have no effect on the virus. But, it helps to prevent other complications that can be caused by bacteria such as acne.
4) Mastitis: Inflammation of the mammary gland can also occur due to physical stress or injury to the animal. Infectious bacteria or other microorganisms (fungi, fungi or viruses) are the primary cause of cough. These microorganisms penetrate the breasts and reproduce, increasing their numbers rapidly. Treatment: Treatment of the disease depends on its condition. It is possible to control the disease at an early stage. Effective drugs such as acarflavin, gramicidin, sulfomide, penicillin and streptomycin are useful.
5) Foot-and-mouth disease: Infections are caused by injuring the hooves of animals. At such times under the guidance of a veterinarian
The place where the animals are treated should be kept dry and clean. This will help reduce the spread of the disease. If the disease is found in large numbers in all the herds, dissolve 5% copper sulphate in it and make the animals walk two to three times a day. So as to curb some of the new infections. Remove the mud from the watering place and apply plaster around it with cement. Proper intake of protein, minerals and vitamins in the diet of animals helps in the health of the hooves and helps in the fight against the disease.
* Vaccination *
Vaccines are available in the market for deadly diseases such as snake bites, pneumonia, hanging, and intestinal poisoning. The following should be considered before vaccination.
* A) What to look out for before vaccination? *
Before vaccinating any animal, it should be given antiseptic for a week.
Gochid, Gomashya, Uva, Likha, Piswa etc. on the body of the animal. Pest control should be done properly.
Animals should be supplied with salts and vitamins to build up immunity.
The bulls should be given light work for one week after vaccination so that the body of the bull is not stressed.
Animals should be given a good nutritious diet to develop good immunity.
Corticosteroids / a few days in vaccinated animals
Do not use antibiotics.
After vaccination, animals should be protected from extreme heat and extreme cold and long distance transportation should be avoided.
Symptoms after vaccination include fever or no movement of the neck; But these symptoms are temporary and mild.
After vaccination, light lumps are applied on the neck to prevent lumps. If the lump is roasted with lukewarm water, the lump will heal. Meat vaccines should be injected into the meat, as well as subcutaneous vaccines under the skin; Otherwise the incidence of lumps increases.
It is important that all pregnant animals are vaccinated after vaccination, not because the vaccine infects pregnant animals. Animals and chicks do not get these diseases especially after inoculation of intestinal toxins and tetanus vaccine given to pregnant goats and sheep. This is because the newborn chicks get immunity through chika.
Vaccination fever and physical stress can cause a small reduction in milk production; But it only lasts for 1 to 2 days, then you get the same milk production as before.
* B) Care during vaccination *
When buying a vaccine, buy a good company vaccine. Expired vaccines should not be used.
Vaccinate the animal in the prescribed dose. Do not use too much or too little by yourself.
The vaccine should always be kept in a cool, dry place. (Keep in the bottom compartment of the fridge, not in the compartment of the buffet.)
The vaccine should be transported from one place to another in a thermos or in a plastic bag without opening it.
Animals should not be vaccinated in the open. Give the same amount. Two different vaccines should not be mixed together. All the animals in the herd should be vaccinated at the same time. Tincture iodine / spirit should not be applied at the site of vaccination.
10) Boil the needle or series used for vaccination
They should be sterilized in water, they should not be treated with any chemicals.
11) Vaccine prepared for vaccination as soon as possible
Finish using. The remaining vaccine should not be stored. Vaccination should be done during the coldest time of the day (morning or evening).
C) What is the benefit of vaccination after infection?
Animals should be vaccinated from time to time without waiting for the disease to occur. Vaccination before the onset of the disease takes two to three weeks for the immune system to develop. Therefore, even before the onset of the disease, the body of the animal develops immunity and the damage can be prevented.
D) Age suitable for vaccination
Vaccination against gonorrhea and fungal diseases should be done on calves six months of age or older. If the mother calf has not been vaccinated against scabies, the calves should be vaccinated at 6 to 8 weeks of age and beyond.
If the mother of the calf has not been vaccinated against enteritis, it should be given to the calf in the first week and if it is given, then the calf should be given to the calf at the age of four to six weeks.
E) Causes of disease even after vaccination.
If the vaccine is not stored properly (in a cool place).
Due to not giving the right amount of vaccine in the right place and in the right place.
Irregularities in vaccination, use of expired vaccine or use of remaining vaccine next year.
If weak, sick animals are vaccinated or if the animals are infested with parasites, as well as if the animals are deficient in vitamins and salts.
E) Care to be taken after the onset of the disease
Sick animals should be kept separate from other animals and fed on the spot. Do not leave out to graze.
Water from ponds and rivers should not be spilled.
Infected animals should be treated in time.
Animals should not be taken to the affected area or moved to other places.
Also, markets / exhibitions in the affected areas should be kept closed.
Dead animals as well as infected excrement and fodder should be disposed of at appropriate places.
Animal herds should be disinfected with disinfectant.
After the onset of the disease, the animals from other villages in the area should be vaccinated first, then the animals near the village should be vaccinated. Finally, the infected village should be vaccinated. This will control the spread of the disease and prevent it from spreading far.